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The British Armed Forces are the armed forces of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown, the British Armed Forces encompasses three professional uniformed services, the Royal Navy, the British Army, and the Royal Air Force. The Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is the British monarch, HM Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance. Under British constitutional law, the armed forces are subordinate to the crown but can only be maintained in peace time by parliament's continuing consent. As a result, parliament still approves the continued existence of the standing armed forces on an annual basis. Consistent with longstanding constitutional convention, however, the Prime Minister holds de facto authority over the armed forces. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence. Under the 1689 Bill of Rights no standing army may be maintained during a time of peace without the consent of parliament.